From Mechanical Lock to Smart Lock

From Mechanical Lock to Smart Lock - Geonfino

Throughout the centuries, locks have been an essential tool that people have used to keep their valuables safe.

Lock Development

The existence of locks was first discovered by archaeologists in Iraq’s Horsabad Palace in the mid-19th century.
The Assyrian kingdom of Mesopotamia, around 4000 B.C., developed essential locks and keys made of wood. This lock was called a pin lock. Its basic principle was similar to the one we use today to make locks.
Then the Egyptians improved this lock and popularized the use of keys! The concept spread from Egypt to Greece and the Roman Empire. It prevailed throughout the world for a whole century.

Modern locksmithing began in 1778 when Robert Barron produced the first double-action lever lock based on the lock-and-key principle of the Egyptian era.
In 1857, James Sargent invented the world's first combination lock. Then, he created the world's first-time lock that could be opened at a specified time (1873) and a time delay lock that could only be opened after a specific time interval (1880). After that, these locks were associated with the word "smart".
In 1975, Tor Sørnes received a patent for the first electronic keycard lock. This opened up a new market for programmable locks. As scientific and technological advanced, the development of locks has been accelerated and pushed into the electronic phase. Due to security involving a wide range of software and hardware, including web-based security services, biometrics, and personal devices with built-in security levels, ordinary locks and keys has evolved to smart locks that can be opened by various methods, including passwords, biometrics, app controls, IC cards, and mechanical keys.

Different Lock Types

1. Knob Locks
Door knob locks are by far the most common type of a door lock. The lock cylinder is located on the knob, not inside the door. It can be easily opened with a basic tool like a hammer or wrench. Therefore, knob locks should not be used on exterior doors.

2. Cam Locks
Cam locks are cylindrical and can be locked when turned. In structurally complete cabinets, they are invisible in most cases. Some cam locks can fully protect the cabinet. It is suitable for protecting sensitive materials. These locks are commonly used on vending machines, filing cabinets, desks, or display cases to prevent unauthorized access.

3. Deadbolt Locks
Deadbolts have a locking bolt that moves when the key is turned without a spring. Their unique locking mechanism provides better resistance to physical attacks, making them less vulnerable to knives or hand tools. It provides greater protection against thieves or break-ins.

4. Padlocks
Padlocks are different from other types of locks: they are self-contained and portable. They are not permanently attached to the door or container. They are mobile and shaped like a shackle with looped-shaped handles. Some are designed to have raised shoulders around the shackle to prevent bolt cutters from cutting into them.

5. Mortise Locks
Mortise locks are strong locking devices for exterior doors that accommodate knobs or levers. These locks offer more security than simple cylinder locks. Lock cylinder components are available in a variety of heights and lengths to fit different types of doors.

6. Smart Locks
Smart locks are versatile electronic door locks that allow for more ways to lock and unlock doors. Its main advantage is the possibility of opening the door without a key. Many smart locks also have Wi-Fi or Bluetooth capabilities to connect to home automation services. However, attention is required to replace the batteries regularly.

Difference Between Mechanical Locks and Smart Locks
1. Working Principle
Traditional Door Lock:
-Insert the key into the lock hole.
-Rotate the key; the projection on the key will lift the locking spring from the rod.
-Continue turning the key; you can let the projection on the latch through the H slot, thus allowing the latch to move.
Smart Lock: 
The basic structure of the smart lock is to use the motor to drive the mechanical lock cylinder to complete the original manual rotation of the key. A smart lock is the product of a combination of traditional door locks, electronic information technology, biometric technology, Internet of Things technology, etc. It incorporates many technological achievements of human society, built-in embedded processors, and intelligent monitoring system, which significantly improves the efficiency of opening and closing the door. Meanwhile, the security door lock security alarm, and other aspects are perfected.
2. Function
Traditional Door Locks:
Normal locks can only achieve the most basic unlocking function, but the low cost of mechanical locks is suitable for use in the case of anti-theft personal items.
Smart locks:
① Security: smart locks are generally equipped with the highest security level lock core.
② Speed: through fingerprints, passwords, mechanical keys, remote app, IC card and face recognition, and other multi-modal door locks quickly open the door.
③ Intelligence: common security systems have virtual passwords, visitor logs, password trial error alarms, door lever alarms, high-temperature alarms, false door cover alarms, automatic locking, etc.
3. Convenience
Traditional Door Lock:
When opening the gate door, you need to take out the key, insert the key, turn, pull the key, and open the door, a total of 5 steps. If you lose the mechanical key, you can only open the door lock through a locksmith.
Smart Lock
To open the door, you only need to identify the fingerprint or enter the password and open the door. A total of 2 actions, when you enter the door, the lock will automatically lock. Compared with traditional door locks, convenience has taken a big leap. At the same time, you do not have to worry about how to open the door when the smart lock has no power. Before running out of power, the smart door lock will alert the user that the door lock power is insufficient and the door lock battery needs to be replaced in time. You can also open the door with the spare mechanical key if you forget to replace the battery.

Wide Use of Smart Locks
Smart locks are now installed in more than 12 million homes in the US. The US smart lock market research report provides a detailed breakdown by lock type, communication technology, authentication methods, components, end users, and other indicators.
Bluetooth keyless locks lead the U.S. smart lock market with over 36% share, which is followed by Wi-Fi smart locks with a share of around 30% in the market. Wi-Fi-controlled lock systems is expected to grow faster than the rest of the market, with the highest penetration of smartphones. For the Internet of Things, the study of machines and other new technologies has been adopted with the increasing and continuous progress. Smart lock systems will become more and more of a trend.
When it comes to authentication methods, more than 47% of smart locks use PIN/password. The demand for biometric, PIN/Code, and RFID locking systems is higher in the residential and commercial sectors. The majority of the US population are working professionals, primarily in offices, leading to a growing demand for keyless smart locks.
The residential sector continues to grow in several US states, and the growth of the real estate industry is increasing the demand for smart locks. The demand for Wi-Fi lock systems is growing rapidly in the residential sector due to the convenience of easy access.

•G5 Keyless Entry Door Lock:
Four kinds of unlocking methods: App + Smart Key + Password + IC card.
Bluetooth + keyless control app. The keyless door lock can be controlled via Bluetooth to unlock without a key. TT Lock app generates timed, permanent, unique, or custom passwords to grant temporary access to transient visitors. Records about unlocking through the app can be viewed at any time.
The smart deadlock design makes for both the security of a deadlock and the convenience of an electronic door lock. It also has an IP65 weatherproof rating and works well in temperatures from -22℉ - 131℉, which can withstand extreme weather conditions and is suitable for exterior doors. Meanwhile, the 4 new batteries AA used in this smart lock can provide 8,000 times unlocking (about 12 months), and it will alert to replace the batteries when the keyless door lock is low on battery.
•G5 Pro Fingerprint Keyless Door Lock:
Five kinds of unlocking methods: Fingerprint + TTLock App + IC Card + Passcode + Mechanical Key.
It has a fingerprint unlocking mode compared to the G5 Keyless Entry Door Lock. The smart fingerprint deadlock door lock can recognize fingerprints in just 0.5 seconds and unlock the keyless entry door lock in just 1 second. It adds fingerprint recognition to the G5-type smart lock, so you can immediately lock or unlock your front door with a single touch without the need for a phone or other devices.